Data consistency checks at the application level

Because readers in Postgres don't lock data, regardless of transaction isolation level, data read by one transaction can be overwritten by another. In the other words, if a row is returned by SELECT it doesn't mean that this row really exists at the time it is returned (i.e. sometime after the statement or transaction began) nor that the row is protected from deletion or update by concurrent transactions before the current transaction does a commit or rollback.

To ensure the actual existance of a row and protect it against concurrent updates one must use SELECT FOR UPDATE or an appropriate LOCK TABLE statement. This should be taken into account when porting applications using serializable mode to Postgres from other environments.

Note: Before version 6.5 Postgres used read-locks and so the above consideration is also the case when upgrading to 6.5 (or higher) from previous Postgres versions.